Background of the Spanish Civil War
A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III The Hellenic civilisation was a collection of city-states or poleis with different governments and cultures that achieved notable developments in government, philosophy, science, mathematics, politics, sports, theatre and music. Athens was a powerful Hellenic city-state and governed itself with an early form of direct democracy invented by Cleisthenes ; the citizens of Athens voted on legislation and executive bills themselves. Athens was the home of Socrates ,  Plato , and the Platonic Academy. By the late 6th century BC, all the Greek city states in Asia Minor had been incorporated into the Persian Empire , while the latter had made territorial gains in the Balkans such as Macedon , Thrace , Paeonia , etc. In the course of 5th century BC, some of the Greek city states attempted to overthrow Persian rule in the Ionian Revolt , which failed. This sparked the first Persian invasion of mainland Greece. At some point during the ensuing Greco-Persian Wars , namely during the Second Persian invasion of Greece , and precisely after the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Artemisium , almost all of Greece to the north of the Isthmus of Corinth had been overrun by the Persians,  but the Greek city states reached a decisive victory at the Battle of Plataea.
The Scots who fought fascism and Franco in Spain’s bloody civil war
The Spanish Civil War was one of the most controversial conflicts of the last century, producing an immense historiography comparable to more decisive events such as the Russian Revolution. Spain was seen as a fading power, stifled by a regressive society and subject to the sort of social and political extremism which modern Europe had outgrown. Why then is the Spanish Civil War one of the most studied conflicts of the last century? Far from being irrelevant to Europe, the devastation of Spain by the forces of fascism, communism and nationalism foreshadowed the conflict of It has even been argued that Spain marked the beginning of the war against fascism—an interpretation implicitly critical of the democratic states for standing aside while a fascist rebellion overthrew a legally elected government.
Between and over , people were killed in the Spanish Civil War so this cannot be considered a ‘little’ war that was overshadowed by the problems .
By the 20th century it was a poor and backward country where corruption was rife. It had lost nearly all of its overseas possessions e. Cuba, the Philippines and great extremes of wealth and poverty caused severe social tensions. Industry was confined mainly to Barcelona and the Basque country. Spaniards were divided on the type of government that they wanted. Monarchists were conservative and Catholics and did not want to reform Spain. Those who wanted a republic were anti-clerical and hoped to reform Spanish society.
There were a number of areas where it was felt reform were needed: Agriculture Spain was essentially an agricultural country. In the south were the vast private estates or latifundia worked by landless labourers.
Spain 1936, the end of anarchist syndicalism? – Subversion
Ninth and last crusade —72 Nov Edward I crowned on his return from the Crusades Apr In addition to the penny, the halfpenny and farthing were minted, and also a fourpenny piece called a ‘groat’ from the French ‘gross’ ‘Decorated’ Gothic period in English architecture till about Climate: Jews expelled from England by Edward I Dec: Berwick-upon-Tweed sacked by Edward I Apr
Dec 04, · The Spanish Civil War (, and subsequent updated editions) Hugh Thomas () pages In the middle of April, , large numbers of Spaniards took to the streets to celebrate the beginning of the Second Republic, as King Alfonso XIII abdicated his throne and withdrew into exile.
The Guardian What happened in ? Sherman is best known as Margaret Thatcher’s guru, co-founder of the rightwing Centre for Policy Studies and the man who did as much as anyone else to roll back of the frontiers of the Tory state from This onetime Daily Telegraph leader writer would have converted them into express bus lanes. If one takes Sherman’s anti-state philosophy to its logical conclusion, one might well be arguing for the withering away of the state itself.
This, of course, is an idea of Karl Marx, nemesis of Thatcherism. Sir Alfred, however, was a member of the communist party from his teenage years to
The forces on the right were lead by Generals Franco and Sanjurjo. They were known as Nationalists. The forces on the left were lead by Azana and were known as Republicans. At the start of the war, the cities of Cadiz, Saragossa, Seville and Burgos declared their support for the Nationalists. Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia declared for the Republicans. The Republicans received help from Russia.
Seventy years since the Spanish Civil War Right wing in Spain attempts to rehabilitate Franco Part One By Paul Mitchell and Vicky Short 13 March
Opposed by most of his MPs and lionised by grassroots activists, socialist Jeremy Corbyn was re-elected Saturday as leader of Britain’s opposition Labour, but takes his party into an increasingly uncertain future. The year-old, first elected as leader last year, increased his support, roundly defeating opponent Owen Smith thanks to support from party members and supporters, even though most lawmakers want him gone.
His anti-establishment, left-wing credentials have endeared him to voters disillusioned with mainstream politics, as has his image as a man of principle standing up for ordinary people. But centrist MPs argue that his policies — which include scrapping nuclear weapons and opposing austerity measures — will never draw enough support from voters to win a general election. Corbyn spent decades on the backbenches of parliament, where his left-wing views have long been out of fashion, before his surprise election as Labour leader last September.
Rumbling criticism of his leadership style turned into open rebellion after June’s referendum vote to leave the European Union, which critics say Corbyn did not do enough to prevent, but he refused to stand aside. The row over the direction of the year-old party has only deepened since little-known MP Smith launched a leadership challenge against him in July. Corbyn seems to have relished the contest, holding rallies around the country, and looks likely to win an even larger mandate than last year.
While he has promised to “wipe the slate clean” and move on following the fight, some commentators believe that his opponents could still split off and form a rival party. Trade union background Born into a political family — his parents met as activists in Britain during the Spanish Civil War — Corbyn worked for trade unions before being elected to the House of Commons in
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King Alfonso XIII named Rivera Prime Minister and supported him until the depression of the early s and other problems brought down the government. Rivera resigned in and died two months later; forced to leave the country in , Alfonso never formally abdicated. As a result, women got the right to vote, the Catalan and Basque regions became autonomous, and the nobility and the Catholic Church were stripped of much power and privilege.
In the elections, the Popular Front—a coalition of leftist groups including communists and socialists—swept into power.
Born into a political family — his parents met as activists in Britain during the Spanish Civil War — Corbyn worked for trade unions before being elected to the House of Commons in
However, without a strong and unifying leader following the assassination of Song Jiaoren, elections were held between different socialist factions of the revolution. From the very beginning, it has refused to join the Comintern citing national sovereignty as an excuse. The early Chinese government puts a lot of effort on industrial and agricultural development, as well as social welfare and free education as in enters the booming 60s. Today, China is one of the strongest powers in the world, only after the Federal Republic of America and the Indian Federation.
The seat Congress of People’s Deputies is elected directly by the electorate, a mixed electoral system of party-list proportional representation and single-seat constituencies FPTP is used. While “reactionary parties” are forbidden according to the Constitution, even far-right parties are now able to form and win seats. The President is largely symbolic, while normally the First Secretary of the biggest party would be appointed Prime Minister.
People’s Party The People’s Party is a center-right party which once claimed to be preaching socialism with Chinese characteristics, which has then become the defender of “Confucian democracy”. Founded by Deng Xiaoping in , it was a participant in the Revolution of , and was considered a mainstream socialist party.
However, Deng himself has moved the party to the right in the disguise of Third Way Politics since After winning the election of , the People’s Party began introducing market reforms in the name of pushing towards the “social market economy”, effectively making China a socialist republic-in-name-only. In the s, the People’s Party gives up socialism in its platform, and instead introduced Confucian democracy, emphasizing the four cardinal virtues:
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
The Spanish Civil War The coup had significant support among right-wing parties and sections of the military, but it should have ended quickly. Had the Popular Front government, from the start, armed the population, it could have quickly halted Franco’s advance. Wherever workers were given arms, or were able to seize them, the coup was pushed back.
Feb 16, · WORKERS’ AND PEASANTS’ COLLECTIVES IN THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR. This year is the 60th anniversary of the Spanish Civil War, which began in July when General Franco led a fascist coup to replace the left-wing Republican government.
Two-plus centuries later, that hasn’t changed a whole lot. It’s a small miracle that a strong central government was formed—against the states’ wishes—and has been maintained thus far, though there have been perceived and dangerously real close calls. So now you’re writing a story 20 Minutes into the Future , or perhaps in an Alternate Universe. How do you show that things have irrevocably but believably changed? Break up the Union. Perhaps the State suffered some sort of crisis of the type it’s never really seen before, and then things went From Bad to Worse.
Maybe the country was broken up by foreign invaders , dissent with an oppressive government led to a break , or maybe regional separatism and nationalism took hold as it kind of did the last time it broke up. For whatever reason, the country now consists of many smaller nation-states.
History of Europe
From Marxism to social democracy[ edit ] Pablo Iglesias founded the party back in PSOE was founded with the purpose of representing and defending the interests of the working class formed during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The ideology of the Spanish Socialist Worker’s Party has evolved throughout the 20th century according to relevant historical events and the evolution of Spanish society.
This allowed for the consolidation of the leftist forces in PSOE. From this moment, the diverse events both outside and within the party led to projects that resembled those of other European social democratic parties and acceptance of the defence of the market economy. Currently, PSOE defines itself as ” social democratic , centre-left and progressive “.
It is grouped with other self-styled socialists, social democrats and labour parties in the Party of European Socialists.
Free over from the spanish refugees, vietnam, and it has announced the spanish civil war pic. Organized by right-wing forces. Over the spanish civil war brought to four factions due to catalonia, –39, of the spanish republic and revenge.
These are external links and will open in a new window Close share panel Image copyright Miquel Barcelo, Arabalears Image caption Porreres exhumation: The Republican and Communist flags are on display An excavation has begun in Majorca for the remains of Spanish Civil War prisoners shot by the Nationalists. About bodies were dumped in a mass grave in Porreres, a town in central Majorca.
The left-wing Republican prisoners came from 30 different areas. The relatives’ association Memoria de Mallorca is managing the dig. Most of the prisoners were lined up against a church wall and shot in Across Spain tens of thousands of Civil War victims remain in unmarked graves. Forensic scientists have the difficult task of identifying the victims, whose names were not recorded by Gen Francisco Franco’s fascist forces.
Memoria de Mallorca believes the Porreres site to be the biggest mass grave in the Balearic Islands dating from the war. In recent years Spain has launched excavations at other mass graves from the war period, but the exhumations remain controversial. An Amnesty Law adopted in , two years after Franco’s death, prevents any criminal investigation into the Franco years.
In Majorca alone there are more than 2, victims’ remains yet to be dug up and identified, Memoria de Mallorca says.
Climate and Vegetation
The Surprising History of Political Affiliations Print The terms right and left refer to political affiliations that originated late in the eighteenth century — in relation to the seating arrangements in the various legislative bodies of France. During the French Revolution of , the members of the National Assembly divided into supporters of the king and supporters of the revolution. The aristocracy sat on the right side of the Speaker, which was traditionally the seat of honor, and the commoners sat on the left.
In a first reaction, the Right opposed the seating arrangement because they believed that deputies should support private or general interests but should not form factions or political parties.
The theft of newborns began in the ’s after the Spanish Civil War as an ideological practice, stripping left-wing parents or Franco-opponents of their children as a .
The History Learning Site, 25 May The Spanish Civil War started in and finished in The forces on the right were lead by Generals Franco and Sanjurjo. They were known as Nationalists. The forces on the left were lead by Azana and were known as Republicans. At the start of the war, the cities of Cadiz, Saragossa, Seville and Burgos declared their support for the Nationalists.
Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia declared for the Republicans. The Republicans received help from Russia. Stalin sent advisers and technicians.